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A pale yellow, viscous liquid formed by the reaction of fuming Nitric acid on Benzene. Nitrobenzene was discovered by Mitscherlich in 1834. When cooled, it forms bright yellow crystals. Nitrobenzene is very toxic. It is used in the manufacture of aniline dyes. as well as being an ingredient in soaps, polishes (metal and shoe), and lubricating oils.

Chemical structure


Synonyms and Related Terms

oil of mirbane; myrbane; nitrobenzol; essence of mirbane


  • Toxic by inhalation, ingestion and skin contact.
  • Combustible. Flash point = 88 C (190 F)
  • ThermoFisher: SDS

Physical and Chemical Properties

Soluble in ethanol, benzene, ether, and oils. Slightly soluble in water.

Composition C6H5NO2
CAS 98-95-3
Melting Point 5.7 C
Density 1.19867 g/ml
Molecular Weight mol. wt.=123.11
Refractive Index 1.550
Boiling Point 210-211 C

Resources and Citations

  • Richard S. Lewis, Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 10th ed., 1993
  • Susan E. Schur, Conservation Terminology: A review of Past & Current Nomenclature of Materials, Technology and Conservation, Spring (p.34-39); Summer (p.35-38); Fall (p.25-36), 1985
  • Random House, Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, Grammercy Book, New York, 1997
  • The Merck Index, Martha Windholz (ed.), Merck Research Labs, Rahway NJ, 10th edition, 1983 Comment: entry 6685
  • F. Crace-Calvert, Dyeing and Calico Printing, Palmer & Howe, London, 1876 Comment: p. 355
  • CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Robert Weast (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, v. 61, 1980 Comment: ref. index=1.550