A brand name for the first synthetic plastic composed of Cellulose nitrate plasticized with Camphor. Parkesine was patented in England in 1855 by Alexander Parkes and marketed as a substitute for Ivory. It was used for small objects, such as jewelry, buttons, fountain pens, and brush handles. The Parkesine Company failed after a few years and was acquired by the British Xylonite company in 1875, which produced pyroxylin.
Synonyms and Related Terms
parquesina (Esp.); cellulose nitrate; pyroxylin; Xylonite; Zylonite; Ivoride
Resources and Citations
- G.S.Brady, Materials Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971 Comment: p. 172
- The American Heritage Dictionary or Encarta, via Microsoft Bookshelf 98, Microsoft Corp., 1998
- Website: www.me.umist.ac.uk/historyp/history.htm -- 1865
- History of Plastics at www.nswpmith.com.au/historyofplastics.html - by 1855
- The Dictionary of Art, Grove's Dictionaries Inc., New York, 1996 Comment: "Plastic"
- Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parkesine (Accessed Jan. 15, 2006) - invented in 1862; company formed in 1866