Peanut oil

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A yellowish, nondrying oil pressed from peanuts, a legume of the species Arachis, such as Arachis hypogaea. Peanuts are native to Brazil; they were brought to Africa, then to the United States and are now cultivated in many countries. Peanut oil contains fatty acids, such as oleic (52-62%), linoleic (21-25%) palmitic (~8%), stearic (~3%), arachidic, and lignoceric. Peanut oil has a nutty taste and odor. It is used in food products, soaps, lubricants, varnishes, and pharmaceuticals.

Synonyms and Related Terms

Arachis hypogaea; arachis oil; huile d'arachide (Fr.); aceite de cacahuete (Esp.); olio di arachide (It); groundnut oil

Hazards and Safety

  • Combustible.
  • Fisher Scientific: MSDS

Physical and Chemical Properties

  • Soluble in ether, ligroin, carbon disulfide, chloroform. Slightly soluble in ethanol. Insoluble in water.
  • Reacts with alkali hydroxides to form soaps.
  • Saponification number = 186-194
  • Iodine number = 88-98
CAS 8002-03-7
Melting Point 3.0 C
Density 0.912-0.920 g/ml
Refractive Index 1.4625-1.4645

Resources and Citations

  • G.S.Brady, Materials Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971 Comment: p. 583; specific gravity = 0.916-0.922; Iodine number = 83-101; Saponification number = 189-196;
  • R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia, Dover Publications, New York, 1966
  • J.Gordon Cook, Handbook of Textile Fibres:II Man-made Fibres, Merrow Publishing Co. , Durham, England
  • Richard S. Lewis, Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 10th ed., 1993
  • The American Heritage Dictionary or Encarta, via Microsoft Bookshelf 98, Microsoft Corp., 1998
  • CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Robert Weast (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, v. 61, 1980 Comment: melting point = 3.0, density=0.914, ref. index = 1.4691, iodine value=93.4, saponification value = 192.1