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One of two basic types of trees; the other is broad-leaves. Conifer trees, or evergreens, belong to the Coniferales group and are native to temperate climates of the northern hemisphere. Conifers have needle-like leaves and bear cones. Turpentine and resin are obtained from many conifer trees. The softwood trees are used for papermaking and construction. Examples of conifers are Pine, Larch, Fir, Yew, Sequoia, Redwood, Cypress, Juniper, cedar, and Spruce.


Synonyms and Related Terms

shinyoju (Jap.); conifère (Fr.); conífera (Esp, It. Port.); evergreen

Resources and Citations

  • G.S.Brady, Materials Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971
  • Hermann Kuhn, Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art and Antiquities, Butterworths, London, 1986
  • Walter C. McCrone, John Gustave Delly, The Particle Atlas, W. McCrone Associates, Chicago, IV, 1972
  • Mary-Lou Florian, Dale Paul Kronkright, Ruth E. Norton, The Conservation of Artifacts Made from Plant Materials, The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, 1990
  • Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia, Douglas M. Considine (ed.), Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1976
  • Random House, Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, Grammercy Book, New York, 1997