Jump to navigation Jump to search
Yellow pine Wardrobe
MFA# 1990.483


Portative organ
MFA# 66.1132

Any of several evergreen trees of the genus Pinus. Pine trees are widely spread throughout the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. They are fast growing and typical sizes for range from 15-45m. These evergreen trees have clustered needles (adult leaves) that can persist for 1.5-40 years. Cones can range in size from 3-60 cm depending on species. Pine wood is soft, easy to work and has little shrinkage. It is moderately resistant to decay and insect attack. Common uses for the lumber are furniture, window frames, floors and roofing. The wood pulp is used to make kraft paper, paper board, and book paper. Pine trees have a resinous sap which is used to make turpentine and pine tar.

Cones from Japanese umbrella pine
Silk dyed with pine tree parts; Uemera Dye Archive

Synonyms and Related Terms

Pinus; fyr-slægten (Dan.); Kiefern (Deut.); Föhren (Deut.); pino (Esp., It.); pin (Fr.); den (Ned.); furu (Nor.); sosna (Pol.); pinho (Port.); tallar (Sven.); matsu (Jap.)

Physical and Chemical Properties

  • Wide range of tree heights from 3-80m
  • Bark = thick and scaly
  • Leaves = needles on adult trees bundled in clusters, generally 2 to 5.
  • Yellow powdery pollen is released in the spring or early summer.
  • Density = 25-35 ppcf

Paper fiber type: Softwood. Using transmitted light microscopy, pine fibers are identified by the presence of pinoid or fenestriform pits. Hard pines can be distinguished by the presence of dentate ray tracheids. See individual species for specific morphological characteristics. Appearance with Graff "C" stain: varies with pulping and bleaching. Average dimensions of fibers: varies by species. Common pulping method: kraft and sulfite.

Additional Images

Resources and Citation

  • F. H. Titmuss, Commercial Timbers of the World, The Technical Press Ltd., London, 1965
  • Dictionary of Building Preservation, Ward Bucher, ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York City, 1996
  • R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia, Dover Publications, New York, 1966
  • G.S.Brady, Materials Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971 Comment: p. 612
  • Marja-Sisko Ilvessalo-Pfäffli. Fiber Atlas: Identification of Papermaking Fibers (Springer Series in Wood Science). Springer, 1995.
  • Walter Rantanen. "Fiber ID Course." Integrated Paper Services. June 2013. Lecture.