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Honey bee


A sweet, viscous fluid produced by bees from the nectar of flowers. Honey is a mixture of Fructose, Glucose, Dextrose and water (~14-20%) with trace amounts of enzymes and oils. Its composition varies slightly depending on the source of nectar. Honey was used since early times as a sweetener and as a plasticizing additive to watercolors, Tempera, Size, and Glair.

Honey bee

Synonyms and Related Terms

med (Ces.); honning (Dan., Nor.); Honig (Deut.); miel (Esp., Fr.); miele (It.); honing (Ned.); miód (Pol.); mel (Port.); honung (Sven.)

Physical and Chemical Properties

Soluble in water. May granulate at 50º and 65º F (10º and 18º C). pH = 3.2-4.5

Additional Images

Resources and Citations

  • University of Waikato: Honey Research Unit
  • R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia, Dover Publications, New York, 1966 Comment: p. 29; 20% water
  • G.S.Brady, Materials Handbook, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971 Comment: p. 95
  • Richard S. Lewis, Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 10th ed., 1993
  • Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia, Douglas M. Considine (ed.), Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1976
  • Random House, Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, Grammercy Book, New York, 1997
  • The American Heritage Dictionary or Encarta, via Microsoft Bookshelf 98, Microsoft Corp., 1998