Difference between revisions of "Glass"

From CAMEO
Jump to: navigation, search
m (Text replace - "== Authority (list of sources check for information on this record)==" to "== Sources Checked for Data in Record ==")
(Applications)
 
(17 intermediate revisions by 2 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
[[File:1992.82-SC41932.jpg|thumb|'''MFA Acc. #:''' 1992.82]]
+
[[File:1992.82-SC41932.jpg|thumb|Sicilian lava vase<br>MFA Acc. #: 1992.82]]
 
== Description ==
 
== Description ==
  
A hard, brittle, amorphous inorganic material made by fusing [[silica]] at high temperatures with two or more metal oxides. Though rare, glass is also naturally produced by volcanic activity ([[obsidian]]), meteor strikes ([[tektite]]) and lightening strikes ([[fulgurite]]). Glass was first made in the Middle East during the 3rd millennium BCE. For glass manufacture, silica is obtained from sand, flint, quartz or broken bits of glass. The fusion point of silica is lowered by mixing it with one or more fluxes ([[soda ash]], [[potash]], [[lime]] and oxides of lead, lithium, cerium etc.) Typical glass, such as soda-lime, contains about 75% silica, 15% soda and 10% lime. The components are melted to approximately 700-1000 C, then formed into various shapes by blowing, casting, pressing or rolling. The glass is cooled to a rigid vitreous material. As glass ages, it can become crystalline or devitrify. Buried glass can have an iridescent surface caused when the metal oxides are dissolved leaving small plates of silicic acid on the surface. Glass is normally colorless and transparent. Small amounts of inorganic materials are used to make glass colored or opaque (see [[glass colorants]]).
+
A hard, brittle, amorphous inorganic material made by fusing [[silica]] at high temperatures with two or more metal oxides. Though rare, glass is also naturally produced by volcanic activity ([[obsidian]]), meteor strikes ([[tektite]]) and lightening strikes ([[fulgurite]]). Glass was first made in the Middle East during the 3rd millennium BCE. For glass manufacture, silica is obtained from [[sand]], [[flint]], [[quartz]] or broken bits of glass. The fusion point of silica is lowered by mixing it with one or more fluxes ([[soda ash]], [[potash]], [[lime]] and oxides of [[Lead oxide|lead]], [[Lithium oxide|lithium]], [[Cerium oxide|cerium]] etc.) Typical glass, such as soda-lime, contains about 75% silica, 15% soda and 10% lime. The components are melted to approximately 700-1000 C, then formed into various shapes by [[Blown glass|blowing]], [[Cast glass|casting]], [[Float glass|floating]], [[Pressed glass|pressing]], or [[Rolled glass|rolling]]. The glass is cooled to a rigid [[vitreous]] material. As glass ages, it can become [[crystalline]] or [[Devitrified glass|devitrify]]. Buried glass can have an iridescent surface caused when the metal oxides are dissolved leaving small plates of silicic acid on the surface. Glass is normally colorless and transparent. Small amounts of inorganic materials are used to make glass colored or opaque (see [[glass colorants]]).
  
[[File:1993.4-SC41936.jpg|thumb|'''MFA Acc. #:''' 1993.4]]
+
[[File:1993.4-SC41936.jpg|thumb|Cluthra vase<br>MFA Acc. #: 1993.4]]
 +
[[File:Image3_802433.jpg|thumb|Bell glass over model<br>MFA Acc. #: 32.166]]
  
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
 
== Synonyms and Related Terms ==
Line 10: Line 11:
 
common glass; sklo (Ces.); glas (Dan., Ned., Nor., Sven.); Glas (Deut.); vidrio (Esp.); verre (Fr.); vetro (It.); vidro (Port.); sticla (Rom.); ; Carrara® glass [PPG]; Pyrex  
 
common glass; sklo (Ces.); glas (Dan., Ned., Nor., Sven.); Glas (Deut.); vidrio (Esp.); verre (Fr.); vetro (It.); vidro (Port.); sticla (Rom.); ; Carrara® glass [PPG]; Pyrex  
  
See also: milk glass; potash glass; potash-lead glass; soda glass; water glass; crystal; window glass; safety glass; plate glass; cylinder glass; lime glass; flint glass; obsidian; tecktite; fulgurik; obsidian; tektite
+
See also: [[agate glass]]; [[alumina glass]]; [[amber glass]]; [[basalt glass]]; [[borosilicate glass]]; [[cameo glass]]; [[canary glass]]; [[Carrara glass]]; [[case glass]]; [[crackle glass]]; [[cobalt glass]]; [[copper ruby glass]]; [[crown glass]]; [[crystal glass]]; [[cylinder glass]]; [[dichroic glass]]; [[Favrile glass]]; [[flash glass]]; [[flint glass]]; [[frosted glass]]; [[gold ruby glass]]; [[green glass]]; [[heat-resistant glass]]; [[iridescent glass]]; [[lead glass]]; [[Luxfer prism glass]]; [[milk glass]]; [[opal glass]]; [[optical glass]]; [[plate glass]]; [[potash glass]]; [[potash-lead glass]]; [[safety glass]]; [[silica glass]]; [[soda glass]]; [[stained glass]]; [[structural glass]]; [[tempered glass]]; [[Tiffany glass]]; [[water glass]]; [[window glass]]; [[glass bead]]; [[glass fabric]]; [[glass fiber]]; [[glass paper]]; [[glass rot]]; [[glass wool]]; [[microballoon]]
 +
[[[SliderGallery rightalign|YG95 glass.TIF~FTIR (MFA)]]]
  
[[[SliderGallery rightalign|MFA- YG95 glass standard.jpg~FTIR]]]
+
== Applications ==
 +
* Cases, windows, facades, mirrors, lights
 +
* Insulation, reinforcement, decoration
 +
* Bottles, containers, tableware
 +
* Optical cables, computer screens
  
== Other Properties ==
+
== Risks ==
  
Insoluble in all solvents except hydrofluoric acid.
+
== Physical and Chemical Properties ==
  
{| class="wikitable"
+
*Insoluble in all solvents except hydrofluoric acid.
|-
+
* Density (glass) =2.4-2.8
! scope="row"| Density
+
* Density (flint) =2.9-5.9
| common=2.4-2.8; flint=2.9-5.9
 
|}
 
  
== Additional Information ==
+
==Resources and Citations ==
 +
* R.Hummel, ''Understanding Materials Science: History, Properties, Applications'', Springer, New York, 1998.
  
° R.Hummel, ''Understanding Materials Science: History, Properties, Applications'', Springer, New York, 1998.
+
* K.Cummings, "Glass", ''The Dictionary of Art,'' Grove's Dictionaries, New York, 1996.
 
 
° K.Cummings, "Glass", ''The Dictionary of Art,'' Grove's Dictionaries, New York, 1996.
 
 
 
== Additional Images ==
 
 
 
<gallery>
 
File:Image3_802433.jpg|'''MFA Acc. #:''' 32.166
 
</gallery>
 
 
 
 
 
== Sources Checked for Data in Record ==
 
  
 
* ''Encyclopedia Britannica'', http://www.britannica.com  Comment: glass"  [Accessed October 17, 2001]. gives date as 2500 BC in History of Glassmaking entry
 
* ''Encyclopedia Britannica'', http://www.britannica.com  Comment: glass"  [Accessed October 17, 2001]. gives date as 2500 BC in History of Glassmaking entry
  
* Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, at http://www.wikipedia.com  Comment: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glass (Accessed Jan. 25, 2006)
+
* Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glass (Accessed Jan. 25, 2006)
  
 
* R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, ''Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia'', Dover Publications, New York, 1966
 
* R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, ''Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia'', Dover Publications, New York, 1966

Latest revision as of 11:40, 26 August 2020

Sicilian lava vase
MFA Acc. #: 1992.82

Description

A hard, brittle, amorphous inorganic material made by fusing Silica at high temperatures with two or more metal oxides. Though rare, glass is also naturally produced by volcanic activity (Obsidian), meteor strikes (Tektite) and lightening strikes (Fulgurite). Glass was first made in the Middle East during the 3rd millennium BCE. For glass manufacture, silica is obtained from Sand, Flint, Quartz or broken bits of glass. The fusion point of silica is lowered by mixing it with one or more fluxes (Soda ash, Potash, Lime and oxides of lead, lithium, cerium etc.) Typical glass, such as soda-lime, contains about 75% silica, 15% soda and 10% lime. The components are melted to approximately 700-1000 C, then formed into various shapes by blowing, casting, floating, pressing, or rolling. The glass is cooled to a rigid Vitreous material. As glass ages, it can become Crystalline or devitrify. Buried glass can have an iridescent surface caused when the metal oxides are dissolved leaving small plates of silicic acid on the surface. Glass is normally colorless and transparent. Small amounts of inorganic materials are used to make glass colored or opaque (see Glass colorants).

Cluthra vase
MFA Acc. #: 1993.4
Bell glass over model
MFA Acc. #: 32.166

Synonyms and Related Terms

common glass; sklo (Ces.); glas (Dan., Ned., Nor., Sven.); Glas (Deut.); vidrio (Esp.); verre (Fr.); vetro (It.); vidro (Port.); sticla (Rom.); ; Carrara® glass [PPG]; Pyrex

See also: Agate glass; Alumina glass; Amber glass; Basalt glass; Borosilicate glass; Cameo glass; Canary glass; Carrara glass; Case glass; Crackle glass; Cobalt glass; Copper ruby glass; Crown glass; Crystal glass; Cylinder glass; Dichroic glass; Favrile glass; Flash glass; Flint glass; Frosted glass; Gold ruby glass; Green glass; Heat-resistant glass; Iridescent glass; Lead glass; Luxfer prism glass; Milk glass; Opal glass; Optical glass; Plate glass; Potash glass; Potash-lead glass; Safety glass; Silica glass; Soda glass; Stained glass; Structural glass; Tempered glass; Tiffany glass; Water glass; Window glass; Glass bead; Glass fabric; Glass fiber; Glass paper; Glass rot; Glass wool; Microballoon

FTIR (MFA)

YG95 glass.TIF


Applications

  • Cases, windows, facades, mirrors, lights
  • Insulation, reinforcement, decoration
  • Bottles, containers, tableware
  • Optical cables, computer screens

Risks

Physical and Chemical Properties

  • Insoluble in all solvents except hydrofluoric acid.
  • Density (glass) =2.4-2.8
  • Density (flint) =2.9-5.9

Resources and Citations

  • R.Hummel, Understanding Materials Science: History, Properties, Applications, Springer, New York, 1998.
  • K.Cummings, "Glass", The Dictionary of Art, Grove's Dictionaries, New York, 1996.
  • Encyclopedia Britannica, http://www.britannica.com Comment: glass" [Accessed October 17, 2001]. gives date as 2500 BC in History of Glassmaking entry
  • R. J. Gettens, G.L. Stout, Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia, Dover Publications, New York, 1966
  • Dictionary of Building Preservation, Ward Bucher, ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York City, 1996
  • Tom Rowland, Noel Riley, A-Z Guide to Cleaning, Conserving and Repairing Antiques, Constable and Co., Ltd., London, 1981
  • Michael McCann, Artist Beware, Watson-Guptill Publications, New York City, 1979
  • Jack Odgen, Jewellery of the Ancient World, Rizzoli International Publications Inc., New York City, 1982
  • Susan E. Schur, Conservation Terminology: A review of Past & Current Nomenclature of Materials, Technology and Conservation, Spring (p.34-39); Summer (p.35-38); Fall (p.25-36), 1985
  • CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Robert Weast (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, v. 61, 1980 Comment: density for common glass=2.4-2.8; flint glass=2.9-5.9

Retrieved from "http://cameo.mfa.org/index.php?title=Glass&oldid=79784"